Industry 4.0 or Industrial Internet of Things
We use them as they were the same thing, but actually they are not. On the Automation World blog, Luigi De Bernardini's analysis.
In most cases, the terms Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) are used interchangeably. But these two terms, though referring to similar technologies and applications, have different origins and meanings. That’s why I think it’s important to understand the differences between Industry 4.0 and the "Industrial Internet of Things" and where our mindset and approaches best fit. First, it is important to remember that the two terms were coined by totally different entities with different goals. Industry 4.0 identifies a German government initiative, which identifies with the fourth industrial revolution—a revolution happening now. It follows the first revolution, which took place in the eighteenth century and was characterized by mechanical production; the second, born at the beginning of the twentieth century and characterized by mass production made possible by the use of electricity; the third, happened in the mid-twentieth century and linked to information technology. The German government initiative is closely oriented to Germany, since the initiative’s manifesto states: "The ultimate aim of Industry 4.0 is to safeguard a sustainable competitive advantage for the German manufacturing base. On one hand we have to train the German industry to build and install CPS (Cyber Physical Systems—hardware systems with embedded software) and, on the other, allow them to remain globally competitive." All this stems from the fact that the German government recognizes German industry’s leading role in research and wants to ensure that this role will be maintained in the future and not affected by technological changes.
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